J9九游会AG

基坑水池(chi)开(kai)挖(wa)

基坑水池开挖是工程初期以至施工过程中的关键工序。将土和岩石进行松动、破碎、挖掘并运出的工程。按岩土性质,土石方开挖分土方开挖和石方开挖。

基坑水池开挖按施工环境是露天、地下或水下,分为明挖、洞挖和水下开挖。在水利工程中,土方开挖广泛应用于场地平整和削坡,水工建筑物(水闸、坝、溢洪道、水电站厂房、泵站建筑物等)地基开挖,地下洞室(水工隧洞、地下厂房、各类平洞、竖井和斜井)开挖,河道、渠道、港口开挖及疏浚,填筑材料、建筑石料及混凝土骨料开采,围堰等临时建筑物或砌石、混凝土结构物的拆除等。

土方(fang)开(kai)挖施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong),包括松(song)(song)动、破(po)碎、挖装、运输(shu)(shu)出渣等工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序。石(shi)方(fang)开(kai)挖,除松(song)(song)软岩石(shi)可(ke)用(yong)松(song)(song)土器以凿裂法开(kai)挖外,一般需以爆(bao)破(po)的方(fang)法进(jin)行松(song)(song)动、破(po)碎。人工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)和(he)半机(ji)械化开(kai)挖,使用(yong)锹镐、风镐、风钻等简单工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)具,配合挑抬或者简易小型(xing)的运输(shu)(shu)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)具进(jin)行作业(ye),适用(yong)于小型(xing)水利(li)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)。有些灌溉排水沟渠的施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)直接使用(yong)开(kai)沟机(ji),可(ke)以一次成形。大中型(xing)水利(li)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)的土石(shi)方(fang)开(kai)挖,多(duo)用(yong)机(ji)械施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)。

明挖(wa)

除使用各(ge)类凿岩、钻(zuan)孔机(ji)械(xie)钻(zuan)孔,进行爆(bao)破作业外,主要(yao)(yao)使用:挖(wa)(wa)(wa)掘(jue)机(ji)械(xie),如(ru)各(ge)种单(dan)斗挖(wa)(wa)(wa)掘(jue)机(ji)(见图(tu))或多斗挖(wa)(wa)(wa)掘(jue)机(ji);铲(chan)运(yun)(yun)机(ji)械(xie),如(ru)推土机(ji)、铲(chan)运(yun)(yun)机(ji)和(he)装载机(ji);有(you)轨运(yun)(yun)输机(ji)械(xie),如(ru)机(ji)车(che)(che)牵引矿车(che)(che);无(wu)轨运(yun)(yun)输机(ji)械(xie),如(ru)自(zi)卸汽车(che)(che)等。根据(ju)不同条件(jian),采用各(ge)种配合(he)方(fang)式,进行挖(wa)(wa)(wa)、装、运(yun)(yun)、卸等各(ge)项(xiang)作业。要(yao)(yao)根据(ju)工(gong)程(cheng)规模、施工(gong)条件(jian),合(he)理选(xuan)用适宜的(de)施工(gong)机(ji)械(xie)和(he)相(xiang)应(ying)的(de)施工(gong)方(fang)法(fa),特别要(yao)(yao)注意机(ji)械(xie)设备的(de)配套协调,避免存在(zai)薄(bo)弱环节。在(zai)特定(ding)条件(jian)下(xia),可(ke)采用水力(li)开(kai)挖(wa)(wa)(wa)的(de)方(fang)法(fa)开(kai)挖(wa)(wa)(wa)土方(fang);也有(you)采用爆(bao)破开(kai)挖(wa)(wa)(wa)的(de)方(fang)法(fa),即用抛(pao)掷(zhi)爆(bao)破或扬(yang)弃爆(bao)破技术,不仅将土石破碎,并全部(bu)或部(bu)分(fen)地将其抛(pao)弃到设计边界以外。

洞挖

一般常用(yong)钻孔爆破法掘进(jin)(jin),用(yong)机械进(jin)(jin)行挖(wa)(wa)装、运卸作(zuo)业;也可采用(yong)全断(duan)面隧洞掘进(jin)(jin)机开挖(wa)(wa)隧洞;在土质松软岩层(ceng)中可用(yong)盾构法施(shi)工(gong)(见隧洞开挖(wa)(wa)、地下厂房开挖(wa)(wa))。

水下开挖

可以采用索铲、抓斗等(deng)陆上开(kai)挖机械,但通常多使用各式挖泥船(chuan),配合拖轮、驳(bo)船(chuan)等(deng)水上运输(shu)设备进行联(lian)合作业(见疏浚)。

施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)方案的(de)(de)编制(zhi)在满(man)(man)(man)足(zu)设(she)计要(yao)(yao)(yao)求(qiu)、工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)质(zhi)量(liang)、施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)安(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)和(he)(he)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)期(qi)要(yao)(yao)(yao)求(qiu)等(deng)(deng)条件(jian)下,通过技(ji)(ji)术(shu)经济比较,进行施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)方案的(de)(de)优(you)化选(xuan)择。编制(zhi)施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)方案时,一(yi)般应(ying)考虑:①开(kai)挖(wa)(wa)方式(shi)和(he)(he)施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)方法(fa)能(neng)(neng)满(man)(man)(man)足(zu)开(kai)挖(wa)(wa)进度要(yao)(yao)(yao)求(qiu),与施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)导流(liu)和(he)(he)混(hun)凝土浇筑等(deng)(deng)前后工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序相衔接,并满(man)(man)(man)足(zu)防洪和(he)(he)渡汛要(yao)(yao)(yao)求(qiu)。②根据水(shui)文、季(ji)节和(he)(he)施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)条件(jian),合(he)理安(an)(an)(an)(an)排(pai)施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)顺序,快(kuai)速施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong),均(jun)衡(heng)生(sheng)产。③根据开(kai)挖(wa)(wa)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)规(gui)模(mo)、土石(shi)特性、工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)条件(jian)、施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)方法(fa),选(xuan)择适用的(de)(de)施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)机械(xie)设(she)备,挖(wa)(wa)、装、运、卸各项设(she)备要(yao)(yao)(yao)合(he)理配套(tao)。④因地(di)(di)制(zhi)宜(yi),安(an)(an)(an)(an)排(pai)好交(jiao)通运输(shu)路线和(he)(he)施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)总平(ping)面(mian)(mian)布(bu)置,以及(ji)风、水(shui)、电(dian)等(deng)(deng)系统。⑤搞好土石(shi)方平(ping)衡(heng)调配,注(zhu)意安(an)(an)(an)(an)排(pai)挖(wa)(wa)采结合(he)、弃填结合(he),避(bi)(bi)免重复倒运。弃渣、弃土场(chang)地(di)(di)尽量(liang)少占(zhan)农(nong)田,并尽可能(neng)(neng)造(zao)地(di)(di)还田。弃渣要(yao)(yao)(yao)避(bi)(bi)免侵占(zhan)河道,避(bi)(bi)免阻碍行洪或抬高电(dian)站尾水(shui)位影响发(fa)电(dian)效益。⑥做好施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)排(pai)水(shui)措施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi),将妨碍施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)业(ye)(ye)和(he)(he)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)质(zhi)量(liang)的(de)(de)雨水(shui)、地(di)(di)表水(shui)、地(di)(di)下水(shui)和(he)(he)施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)废水(shui)排(pai)至场(chang)地(di)(di)以外,为工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)创造(zao)良好的(de)(de)施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)条件(jian)。⑦按(an)设(she)计和(he)(he)施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)技(ji)(ji)术(shu)规(gui)范的(de)(de)要(yao)(yao)(yao)求(qiu),保(bao)证施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)质(zhi)量(liang)。对施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中可能(neng)(neng)遇到的(de)(de)问题,如(ru)流(liu)砂现象、边坡稳定、隧洞塌方等(deng)(deng),要(yao)(yao)(yao)进行技(ji)(ji)术(shu)分析,提出(chu)解(jie)决的(de)(de)措施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)。⑧注(zhu)意施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)安(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan),按(an)照安(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)、防火(huo)、环境(jing)保(bao)护、工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)业(ye)(ye)卫生(sheng)等(deng)(deng)方面(mian)(mian)规(gui)程(cheng)的(de)(de)规(gui)定,制(zhi)定施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)安(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)技(ji)(ji)术(shu)措施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)。



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